Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate. This includes those who have polycystic ovary syndrome.
The reference site for Clomifene
WHAT IS Clomiphene?
Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), used mainly in female infertility due to anovulation (e.g. due to polycystic ovary syndrome). Clomiphene stimulates the release of hormones necessary for ovulation to occur.
In some countries, it is also registered for use in men. Clomiphene citrate is marketed under various trade names including Clomid®, Serophene® and Milophene®.
Brand Name(s): Clomid; Milophene; Serophene
CAS nº: 911-45-5
(KLOE mih feen)
The sections below will provide you with more specific information and guidelines related to clomiphene and its correct use. Please read them carefully.
Clomiphene citrate was first synthesized in 1956. It was introduced into clinical trials in 1960 and FDA approval for clinical use came in 1967.
The FDA approval was for a maximum total consumed dose per cycle of 750 mg (a limit that is frequently surpassed). A prescription is required for this medicine.
Why is this medication prescribed?
Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), used mainly in female infertility due to anovulation (e.g. due to polycystic ovary syndrome).
In some countries, it is also registered for use in men.
Mode of action:
Clomifene acts by inhibiting the action of estrogen on the gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland. “Sensing” low estrogen levels, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release is increased, leading to a higher rate of ovulation and hence pregnancy.
Clomifene can lead to multiple ovulation, and hence increasing the risk of twins. In comparison to purified FSH, the rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is low. There may be an increased risk of ovarian cancer, as well as weight gain.
Other uses for this medicine
Clomiphene is also sometimes used to treat male infertility, menstrual abnormalities, fibrocystic breasts, and persistent breast milk production.
Nevertheless, it is important that you talk to your doctor about the possible risks of using this drug for your particular condition.
Dosage and using this medicine
Clomiphene comes as a tablet to be taken orally.
It is usually taken once a day for 5 days, beginning on or about day 5 of the cycle.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
To help you remember to take clomiphene, take it around the same time every day.
It is important that you follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take clomiphene exactly as directed.
Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
What special precautions should I follow?
BEFORE TAKING CLOMIPHENE:
Do not take clomiphene without first talking to your doctor if you think you might be pregnant, have a thyroid problem or another endocrine disorder, undiagnosed vaginal bleeding, endometriosis or endometrial carcinoma, uterine fibroids, liver disease, ovarian cysts or ovarian enlargement not due to polycystic ovarian syndrome, or any other serious or chronic medical illness. You may not be able to take clomiphene, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring if you have any of the conditions listed above.
There are no known interactions between clomiphene and other medicines. However, it is advised that you talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines.
Additionally, do not take clomiphene if you are pregnant. Clomiphene is in the FDA pregnancy category X. This means that it is known to cause birth defects.
So too, it is not known whether clomiphene pass into breast milk. Do not take clomiphene without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
Use cautiously when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Clomiphene may cause blurred vision or other visual side effects during or shortly after therapy. Notify your doctor immediately if you develop any visual side effects and use caution when performing hazardous activities, especially under conditions of variable lighting.
What should I do if I forget a dose?
Please contact your doctor if you miss a dose of clomiphene.
What side effects can this medication cause?
Stop taking clomiphene and seek emergency medical attention if you experience an allergic reaction (such as difficulty breathing, closing of your throat, swelling of your lips, tongue, or throat).
The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) has been reported to occur in patients receiving clomiphene. Symptoms of OHSS include swelling of the hands or legs, abdominal pain and swelling, shortness of breath, weight gain, and nausea or vomiting. OHSS can be fatal. Please notify your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical attention if you develop any of these side effects.
Other side effects may also occur. Notify your doctor if you experience:
ovarian enlargement presenting as abdominal or pelvic pain, tenderness, pressure, or swelling
nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
breast tenderness or discomfort
blurred vision or other visual disturbances
abnormal uterine bleeding
Note: Clomiphene may increase the likelihood of multiple births. Multiple births may carry additional risk both for the mother and for the fetuses.
Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.
What storage conditions are needed for this medicine?
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Remeber to throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. If you have any doubts, please talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
In case of an emergency/overdose
In the case of an overdose, call your local poison control center on 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, please call the local emergency services on 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include:
visual spots or flashes
PICTURES OF CLOMIPHENE PILLS
Below you will find images and specific information on the principal types of clomiphene that exist, including their respective brand name(s), strength, inscription codes, manufacturers and/or distributors.
The information below includes general information and guidelines for patients taking this medication and should never be used to substitute professional medical advice that can be provided by a qualified physician or family doctor.
Strength(s): 50 MG
Imprint: 93 41
Manufacturer: TEVA USA
Strength(s): 50 MG
Imprint: WATSON 701
Manufacturer: WATSON LABS.
Strength(s): 50 MG
Imprint: CLOMID 50
Manufacturer: AVENTIS PHARM.
Strength(s): 50 MG
Manufacturer: SERONO INC.